Instruction in Cause and Effect Paraphrasing Using Social Studies Text With a Secondary Bilingual Student: A Case Study Purpose: This case study describes the use of the paraphrasing strategy with cause-and-effect (C/E) relations as a technique to improve a 14-year-old high school student's reading comprehension of social studies text in both his native (Spanish) and second language (English). Method: The student used expository texts from state textbook adoption ... Article
Article  |   July 01, 2009
Instruction in Cause and Effect Paraphrasing Using Social Studies Text With a Secondary Bilingual Student: A Case Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Karla Bejos
    Bilingual Multicultural Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM
Article Information
Cultural & Linguistic Diversity / Professional Issues & Training / Articles
Article   |   July 01, 2009
Instruction in Cause and Effect Paraphrasing Using Social Studies Text With a Secondary Bilingual Student: A Case Study
Perspectives on Communication Disorders and Sciences in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations, July 2009, Vol. 16, 54-63. doi:10.1044/cds16.2.54
Perspectives on Communication Disorders and Sciences in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations, July 2009, Vol. 16, 54-63. doi:10.1044/cds16.2.54
Abstract

Purpose: This case study describes the use of the paraphrasing strategy with cause-and-effect (C/E) relations as a technique to improve a 14-year-old high school student's reading comprehension of social studies text in both his native (Spanish) and second language (English).

Method: The student used expository texts from state textbook adoption materials. Instruction was based on scaffolded dialogue that cued the student to attend to and paraphrase various aspects of the C/E concept.

Results: Despite the fact that the student began with texts at reading levels 5 and 6 years below his actual grade level, the comprehension of C/E relations in history text was a challenge. Several factors contributed to the complexity of the task for the student. By the final phase of intervention, he was successfully paraphrasing with texts that were 3 and 4 years above the baseline reading grade levels.

Implications: The salient points from this study that may be useful for educators or speech language pathologists are: a description of the difficulties that interfered with the student's comprehension and the thought processes he used, types of cues used to teach C/E relations, and evidence of the student's development of paraphrases and comprehension.

Acknowledgment
I would like to thank Dr. Barbara Rodriguez and Dr. Carol Westby for their suggestions, feedback, and patience throughout this study.
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